Photography Basics

July 29 , 2019 Bisakha Datta
Basic Photography Tutorial
Basic Photography Tutorial

What is Photography?

To learn photography first we need to know what is photography. Photography is an art of freezing moments of something captured by the camera by our imagination, composition, and light.

The picture that you took with your camera is the imagination you want to create with reality.

Photography is
1. Communication of ideas
2. Creative art

Photography, is a powerful medium of expression and communication, offers an infinite variety of perception, interpretation, and execution.

So, how photographs create?

Basically, in DSLR there are two parts.

  • Camera Body
  • Lens

In any lens, there is a hole through which light travels into the camera body. This is called aperture

A digital sensor in the camera body that opens and closes to expose the picture is called shutter

When we press the shutter button, the camera capture the photo.

The photo may be captured as we see as it is, it may be artistic like the light & shadow. Some examples are following

It depends on our concept and imagination. So basically in photography, we are playing with light.

Technically, we can control the light by

  • Aperture
  • Shutter Speed
  • ISO

This is known as the exposure triangle.

Exposure Triangle is the key tools to create a photograph.


Aperture is an important part of the Exposure Triangle.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture and focal length of an optical system determine the cone angle of a bundle of rays that come to a focus in the image plane.

Photography basic - Aperture
In the lens, there is a little tiny hole. You can increase and decrease the hole.

The small number means a big hole and a big number means a small hole. The aperture is known as F stops

What is the meaning of F


The stops are
f/1.4, f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22

√2 = 1.414
(√2)2 = 2
(√2)3 = 2.8
(√2)4 = 4
(√2)5 = 5.6

Increase one-stop double the light
Decrease the stop half the light

We can see this aperture number on the lens. F/1.8 starts to value and end value

Also, this number defines the exposure and depth of field of the captured image

What is Depth of Field?

How much focus area in the image has. Two types of Depth of Fields are there

  • Deep DOF
  • Shallow DOF

Before press the shutter button, first we need to think how much Depth of Field we want for the captured image.

For Portrait – Mostly use F/1.8, F/2.8
For Landscape – Mostly use F/11, F/16 or F/22

Shutter Speed

Photography basic - Shutter Speed
In photography, shutter speed or exposure time is the length of time when the film or digital sensor inside the camera is exposed to light, also when a camera’s shutter is open when taking a photograph.


Photography basic - ISO
In the digital segment of photography, ISO measures the sensitivity of the camera sensor to light. Higher ISO used in a darker situation.

Compositions of Photography

July 29 , 2019 Bisakha Datta
composition of photography
composition of photography

01 – Rule of Third

Rule of third composition

This is one of the most talked-about compositional techniques. All you need to do is to divide your frame vertically into three equal parts and horizontally into three equal parts. By placing your subject on one of the four points where these dividing lines meet, you will encourage the viewer away from the center of the frame. This forces them to look around the image and makes your composition more interesting.

Rule of Third

02- Patterns and Textures

Human beings are naturally attracted to patterns. They are visually attractive and suggest harmony. Patterns can be manmade like a series of arches or natural like the petals on a flower. Incorporating patterns into your photographs is always a good way to create a pleasing composition. Less regular textures can also be very pleasing on the eye.

03 – Foreground Interest

Foreground Interest

04 – Leading Lines

Leading Lines

05 – Rule of Odds

Rule of Odds

The rule of odds states that images are more visually appealing when there is an odd number of subjects. For example, if you are going to place more than one person in a photograph, don’t use
two, use 3 or 5 or 7, etc.

06 – Fill the Frame

Fill the Frame

07 – Use of Negative Space

Use of Negative Space

Leaving a lot of empty or ‘negative’ space around your subject can be very attractive. It creates a sense of simplicity and minimalism. Like filling the frame, it helps the viewer focus on the main subject without distractions.

08 – Minimalism

Minimalism is the composition which expresses ‘less is more’. Simplicity is the main key to this composition.

09 – Juxtaposition

Juxtaposition is the composition which presents two or more elements in a scene that can either contrast or the opposite with each other or complement each other. These photographs approach to tell a story.

For example:
1. A fat person next to a skinny person
2. The tall person next to a short person
3. Dark colors next to light colors
4. Circles next to rectangles
5. Old people next to young people

10 – Golden Ratio

Fibonacci Series
0, 1, 1,2,3,5,8,13,21…….n
The golden ratio is an invisible leading line which follows to maintain the composition which nature itself follows.
It is believed that the golden spiral method of composition has been in existence for over 2,400 years having been devised in Ancient Greece.
It is widely used in many types of art as well as architecture as a way of creating aesthetically pleasing compositions. It was particularly well employed in Renaissance art.
The Golden Ratio, also sometimes called the Fibonacci Spiral.
The value of the golden ratio is 1.61803398875
a/b = (a+b)/a = 1.61803398875
We do not need to memorize this, we need to just understand it.

Golden Spiral
Example of some photographs of Golden Ratio
Golden Ratio

To know more about 30+ photography composition like Symmetry, Frame within the Frame, Diagonals, and Triangles, Golden Triangle etc. collect this book.

Black And White Photography

July 29 , 2019 Bisakha Datta
Black And White Photography: Capturing a Moment for Lifetime
Black And White Photography: Capturing a Moment for Lifetime

Black And White Photography: Capturing a Moment for Lifetime
Black And White Photography: Capturing a Moment for Lifetime

Sometimes black and white photography aren’t always just black and white but it’s a magical dreamscape. Colored shooting is great but the perfect implementation of the features like contrast, pattern, and tone can make your photography more stunning and captivating.

What is Black and White photography?

Let’s know the exact meaning of Black and white photography. It is the art of removing all the colors digitally from a picture and combining black and white, producing different shades of grey and inducing images.

Types of Black and White photography

In terms of grayscale shadings, there are different types of images from absolute white to absolute black.

Important accessories needed

If you are planning for black and white photography then the very first thing you will need to select the perfect type of camera.

Camera: There are some monochromatic cameras which give sharp black and white images but they are expensive too. While it’s a better idea to capture images in a normal camera in RAW format and convert in black and white during post-production.

In addition to the camera, fantastic gadgets will make your photography experience successful. The right choice of gear will save your camera and produce an ultimate photo.

The must have equipment are:

  • Lens
  • Tripod
  • Camera bag and carry system
  • Filters
  • White balancing tools
  • Waterproof memory cardholders
  • Cleaning kits
  • Spare batteries
  • Lens: Photographer can use any lens from wide angle to moderate telephoto lens, such as 11-16 mm to 85 mm.
  • Tripod: In photography, a tripod is used to stabilize the camera and to prevent camera movement to capture still as well as motion pictures. Tripod is used during slow speed exposures and when extreme focus length is used.
  • Filters: Filters are used to get the right contrast and mood in the photos. It helps in long exposure also. A very common problem in Black &White photography is that certain colors look very similar in greyscale. Colored lens filters solved this problem by creating effects.

Five main color filters are used in Black & White photography– red, orange, yellow, green and blue. But blue filters are rarely used because it darkens most of the colors.

Capture the art of creating stunning B&W images now!

How to create stunning images?

Photography is exciting, but black and white photography are all-time favorites. Some golden rules are,

  • Contrast: A striking result of an image can be produced by translating the image into black and white by used well contrast.
  • Texture: World around us is full of texture like smooth sea or a craggy cliff face. A difference can be made by using perfect texture.
  • Composition: leading lines, the horizon, patterns are all things need to remember at the time of shot, so the perfect image can be captured.
  • Histogram: In the context of photography histogram is the simple graph represented the pixels exposed in the image. Left side represents shadows, right side represents bright areas and mid-section represents mid tones.
  • Camera Setting: These are generally depends on exposure triangle. Exposure triangle is none but the three main things, ISO, Shutter Speed and Aperture.
  • ISO: In digital segment of photography ISO measures the sensitivity of the camera sensor to light. Higher ISO used in darker situation.
  • Shutter Speed: It is the amount of time; the shutter is open to let lights in. So, time is taken by the image sensor to see the image which we want to capture. It is measured in seconds, e.g. 1/1000 is much faster than 1/60.
  • Aperture: Aperture is the opening of the lens. While press the shutter release button hole of camera opens to allow the scene into sensor. Smaller hole allows less light and bigger hole allows more light. It is measured by F numbers. F/1.4 is a larger aperture than F/8. Apertures control the depth of field. Depth of field means, how much of images will be in focus.

Learn From the Pioneers: Great Photographers

In the era of color photography, some are still continuing with the old tradition of black and white photography.

  1. One great name is Daido Moriyama. To know about this great photographer you can visit Some of the well-known books written by him are The World through My Eyes, How I Take Photographs, Daido Moriyama autobiography, Kagero, and Colors, etc.
  2. Mention can also be made of Scott Typaldos. Follow this path-breaking photographer at Follow for regular updates. Books by this great man that deserves special mention are, Butterflies, Butterflies Chapter I, II, III and IV, Waxed in Black, In the Black and Beyond and a lot more.
  3. Henry Horenstein is another legendary name in the field of Black and Whites. Visit to know more about him. To see photos visit Books that are a must-read are, Black and White Photography: a Basic Manual, Shoot What You Love: Tips and Tales from a Working Photographer, Make Better Pictures: Truth, Opinion and Practical Advice, etc.

Editing: Use of Adobe Photoshop and Lightroom

If you want more pleasing images then black and white photography is the perfect one. To convert your image into black and white, Adobe Photoshop is one of the best tools. Choose image > adjustment > black & white where we can find properties tab. By adjusting the color sliders we can fit the image. Then adjust by brightness/contrast, levels, curves, and exposure. Lastly, we can save the image.

Adobe Lightroom is the easiest way to convert a color image into a black and white image. It is a non-destructive process which will not overwrite your original picture.

Ideas and inspiration

To get some unique ideas on B&W photography you can follow Bisakha Datta.

Making Money with Black and White Photography

Stock photography


Shutterstock is a leading photographic trading market place over than 15 years, a very popular online site to buy photos. They have a collection of 200 million images, videos, and music tracks with royalty-free purchasing that makes a huge number of customers.

Adobe Stock

Adobe Stock (formerly Fotolia) is a market place to stock photos by most popular photo editing software companies like lightroom and Photoshop. It is considered to be the very first site to sell photographs online. The share of royalty is also higher than any other online store.


Dreamstime offers reliable and genuine HQ digital photos with affordable price. It’s a royalty-free stock photography site from 2000. It is one of the best photography leaders in the world.

Creative Market

Creative Market is a handcrafted digital market place to sell simple and accessible designs for everyone. They offer photos, graphics, themes, 3d models, fonts, add on, website themes, templates.


BigStockPhoto is an international royalty free micro stock photographic website. It is the most reliable seller of online photo market. They typically sell images via a credit-based system. They have a vast collection of photos, vectors, and illustrations.

Make money through Facebook

Create a discussion group

Make a photographic group or page on Facebook and carry on discussing your preferred genre of photography. Keep uploading your best images. Create an engaged community base.

Create competition

Create a photography competition and gather more followers. Sell photographs to enthusiast buyers.

Make money through Instagram/Pinterest

Grow your followers

Making money in Instagram/Pinterest through photography is based on the growth of engaged followers. Make a proper profile and set a good image that looks professional. Use a simple effective logo. Put on a catchy description. Stick to a particular genre of photography that makes an identity of you. Post most stunning and relish pictures consistently, don’t overdo posting that may annoy your followers. Use hashtag and geotags.

Follow me on Instagram.
Visit my Pinterest.

Sell Pictures

There are many renowned market places and hosting sites that offer photographers to gain good money through licensing and making a partnership with big brands.

  • Offer limited-time free services to grow your follower
  • Offer premium services
  • Quiz
  • Interaction with followers

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Teach Photography

Teaching photography is a great thing to make money. You can have basic digital online classes via your website. Make a detailed video course and charge a better amount to buyers. Conduct with your followers via social media and also you can have an affiliate marketing plan for your students. Privet lessons are also good. Bisakha Datta is indeed a good teacher to help you solve all your photography queries.

Sell Art Photography

The initial stage is to get hold of a reliable printing source and gradually create an offline marketplace platform or create an online blog of your own. Display your art prints, set the price, promote your initiative and start earning gradually.  Get some unique ideas here.

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Affiliate marketing

In Instagram or any other marketplace, influencer photographers are more focused on making sales. Adding a tracked link in your bio section on Instagram or in the caption of each post can make an affiliate marketing strategy.

Create your own stock website

Creating a stock photography site is a golden opportunity for photographers with a new way to make money online. It is very useful for marketers, entrepreneurs, designers, etc. Stumbling with the procedure of making a stock website? Visit an expert at to get authentic advice.

Create your own gallery to showcase is an online free photo hosting and sharing site that offers you to make unlimited sharing of your photos and exploring other images without paying a single coin. It has a very active and engaged community. The website offers your a gallery to showcase with rich and advanced features.
You can visit my Flickr.

500 p-x is a Toronto; Canada based photo hosting and sharing service site. It is owned by China. It’s an international online platform for photographers to get global exposures. It also offers to gain money via licensing and brand partnerships.
Visit here

Sell T-Shirt with your unique photography

Selling T-Shirts with unique photography is a pretty cool idea of money-making. Selling a designed T-Shirt online is a big gateway into the larger e-commerce market or in the world of fashion.

Grab the tee designed only for you!

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Write a book and sell

Write a book on photography and sell it. If anyone gets difficulties related with publishing they can self publish a book in e-book format that also yields money. Get a mentor and coach in here.

Create a blog to share your photography experience

How to create your blog? – Probably blogging is the best part of digital marketing. To make money with photography one must write blogs in their sites.
How to create a site using WordPress? – Creating a site requires knowledge of web development and designing using WordPress. There is a better way to visit an expert at She will provide a great deal in creating your website as per your request.

Create YouTube channel

For creating an effective YouTube channel that will gain vast popularity in the least time concerning photography and designs, contact the website of Bisakha Datta at

Workshop on photography

Photography workshop is a place where anyone who has a keen willingness to learn photography can gather much knowledge and experience in a few hours. In a workshop, arranged by many famous photographers, you get something which is priceless. For making career photography one must go through some photography workshops. There are many workshops available in the market.

One can visit Bisakha Datta’s website at and participate in the workshops for beginner and aspiring photographers conducted at regular intervals.